Writing and Communication Center

Chicago Style Formatting

Please note that there are two primary ways to use Chicago Style: Notes and Bibliography, and Author/Date. This webpage and the attached handout cover the Notes and Bibliography format. For information on Author/Date citation, please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style online.

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Chicago Notes and Bibliography System

The Chicago Notes-Bibliography System of citation is used primarily in literature, history, art history, and the arts. The most recent edition of The Chicago Manual of Style is the 16th Edition, which was published in 2010. The Chicago NB (Notes-Bibliography) system uses footnotes or endnotes within the text and a Bibliography at the end. The footnotes or endnotes (hereafter “notes”) are marked in the text by a superscript number which corresponds to the note.

In the Notes and Bibliography system, citations are generally provided in the main text through the use of footnotes or endnotes. In addition, a bibliography provides complete information on the works cited and may also refer to other works consulted. One of the strengths of the Notes and Bibliography system is its flexibility; see chapter 16 of the Chicago Manual of Style for more details.
 

Differences between notes and bibliography entries

Order of names: in the note, the author’s name is First, Middle Initial, Last; in the bibliography, it is Last, First, Middle Initial.

Indentation: In the note, the first line is indented one space. In the bibliography, a hanging indent is used, where the second and subsequent lines of the entry are indented to the right.

Notes are numbered, bibliography entries are alphabetized.

Examples of Notes and Bibliographic Entries by Source

Example:

Text

A Confederate soldier, Chad Green, claimed to have seen Dotsan order the attack, but when asked about his vantage point, he could not describe the terrain.13

Note
     13. Brian J. Foxe, The War: A Short History
(New York: HarperCollins, 1998), 345.


Bibliography Entry

Foxe, Brian J. The War: A Short History
               
 New York: HarperCollins, 1998.

First and Subsequent Notes for a Source:

The first time you cite a source, the note should include all the publishing information and the page number.

      1. Peter Mallard, One Fine Day: Weather Patterns in San Diego (New York:
St. Martin's, 2003), 58.

 For subsequent references to a source you have already cited, you may simply give the author's last name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited. A short form of the title of a book is italicized; a short form of the title of an article is put in quotation marks.
 

4. Mallard, One Fine Day, 13.

How to use Ibid

When you have two notes from the same source, that follow each other consecutively, you may use "Ibid." (from the Latin, meaning "in the same place"), and the page number for the second and subsequent notes. Use "Ibid." alone if the page number is the same.

5. Jack Freeman, Gwyn Sharp: A Biography (New York: Knopf, 1993), 23.

6. Ibid., 174.

7.Ibid.

8. Stephen Moreau, How to Cook the Perfect Egg (New York: Routledge, 2010), 321.

9.Freeman, Gwyn Sharp, 175.

10.Moreau, How to Cook, 322.

11.Ibid., 324.

Most Common Formats:

Format for Books:

 Note (N):

     1. Firstname Lastname, Title of book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. Title of book.
             Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

Format for Journal Articles:

 Note (N):

        1. Firstname Lastname, “The Title of the Article,” The Title of the Journal issue, no. (year): pages.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. “The Title of the Article.” The Title of the Journal issue, no.
          (year): pages.

Format for Electronic Articles:

 Note (N):

     1. Firstname Lastname, “The Title of the Article,” The Title of the Journal  issue, no. (year): pages, http address (accessed Month day, year).

 
Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. "The Title of the Article.” The Title of the Journal  issue,
           no. (year): pages. http address (accessed Month day, year).

 

Format for Artworks and Museum Wall Plaques:

Wall Plaques:

Format of information (wall text, object label, brochure), Object Name, Gallery Name, Number or Exhibition Title, Museum Name, City, State.

EXAMPLE:

Wall text, Playful Performers, National Museum of African Art, Washington, D.C.

Artworks:
N:    

     1. Frank Duveneck, Whistling Boy, oil on canvas, 1872, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, OH.

B:  (museum)

Duveneck, Frank, Whistling Boy, oil on canvas, 1872, Cincinnati Art Museum,
              Cincinnati, OH.

B: (online)

Duveneck, Frank, 1872. Whistling Boy. Database on-line.
             ARTstor.http://www.artstor.org.Accessed 14 September 2005.           

Format for Web Sources:

N:

     1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of web page,” Publishing organization or name of web site in italics, Publication date if available, URL.


B:

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of web page.” Publishing organization or name of
               web site in italics
. Publication date if available. URL.

 
Although not required by the Chicago style system, some instructors may require access dates. If required, the access date should be included in parenthesis at the end of the citation.
 

Chicago In-Text Citations

In the Notes and Bibliography system, citations are generally provided in the main text through the use of footnotes or endnotes.

The superscript number is the equivalent to the parenthetical citation. Place the superscript number outside of any sentence punctuation.

Example:

"The life and work of Henry James offer a wealth of impressions to readers with eyes for the unconventional: the author and many of his male characters defy stereotypes of masculinity, asking in their varied voices if culture allows for deviation." 1

---

1. Kelly Cannon, Henry James and Masculinity: The Man at the Margins (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994), 1.

Footnotes are in the same style as endnotes. There is no difference in the contents of footnotes and endnotes. The simple difference is that footnotes appear at the end of the page where the footnote number appears, and endnotes are placed at the end of your paper.

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Chicago Handout

Most of your questions about Notes/Bibliography style are answered on this printable handout.

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DC1 Oppenheimer & Gustafson Students:

Please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style Online for information on how to use Author/Date style.

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