Writing and Communication Center

APA In-Text Citations

In-text citations allow the reader to connect your specific references to the claims and quotes within your paper.  What you include in your in-text citation will vary based on the type of source.

Short Quotations

When directly quoting from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number (p. #) for the reference.

According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style,    
especially when it was their first time" (p. 199).

She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," but she did not offer an explanation as to why (Jones, 1998, p. 199).

Long Quotations

Direct quotations longer than 40 words should go in a free-standing block of text without quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin maintaining double space. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.

Jones's (1998) study found the following:

     Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time
     citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students
     failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p. 199)

Summarizing or Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference. APA guidelines encourage you to provide the page number, though it is not required.

According to Jones (1998), APA style can be a difficult citation format for first-time learners, so it is important to consult the proper resources to ensure accuracy.