Writing and Communication Center

APA Formatting

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. APA style requires both in-text citations and a reference list. For every in-text citation there should be a full citation in the reference list. The examples of APA styles and formats listed here include many of the most common types of sources used in academic research.

The information here is set according to the standards of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. 

APA In-Text Citations
For all in-text citations except for those following block quotations, the reference is placed immediately before the final punctuation mark of the sentence that refers to that source. In all citations, elements (such as author, publication year, and page number) are separated from each other by commas.

APA Author/Authors
How to create reference list entries based on works with single or multiple authors.

APA References List
Some examples of citations for print resources as they may appear in a reference page in APA style. The examples are meant to be illustrative and do not encompass every possible situation.

Note: titles of periodicals (newspapers, journals, magazines) are capitalized as they normally are; book titles and article titles have only the first word of the title (and of any subtitles), as well as proper nouns, capitalized. Use single spaces between all words/items within each citation.

APA Handout
Most of your questions answered on the printable handout.

Secondary Sources
If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.

Johnson argued that...(as cited in Smith, 2003, p. 102).
Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.

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