According to MLA, you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your paper. Remember, the entries in the Works Cited page will match the signal word or phrase in your text.Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your paper. It will have the same margins and a header with your last name and page number just like the rest of your paper
- Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize, bold, or underline the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center at the top of the page.
- Double space all citations. Do not make extra spaces between entries. (Note: the examples used here are single-spaced in order to conserve paper.)
- Indent the second and subsequent lines of each citation so that you have a hanging indent.
Book by one author
Barnet, Sylvan. A Short Guide to Writing About Art. 3rd ed. New York:
HarperCollins, 1989. Print.
Book by two or more authors
Browne, M. Neil, and Stuart M. Keeley. Asking the Right Questions: A Guide to
Critical Thinking. 9th ed. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2010.
Book by a corporate author or organization
Modern Language Association. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
7th ed. New York: Modern Language Association, 2009. Print.
More than one work by an author
Watson, Peter. From Manet to Manhatten. New York: Random House, 1992. Print.
---. Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, From Fire to Freud. New York:
Harper Collins, 2005. Print.
Work with no known author
American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. New York: Random, 1998.
Edition of a book
Wilson Paige, and Teresa Ferster Glazier. The Least You Should Know About
English: Writing Skills. 10th ed. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011.
Anthology or collection (e.g., a collection of essays)
Wallace, David Foster, ed. Best American Essays 2007. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
A work in an anthology, reference, or collection
Gladwell, Malcolm. “What the Dog Saw.” Best American Essays 2007. Ed. David
Foster Wallace. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. 86-102. Print.
Article in a magazine
Washington, Rasheed. “Different Strokes.” Good Housekeeping Mar. 1994: 173-7.
Article in a newspaper
Stewart, Kennedy. “No Time for Sleeping.” New York Times 21 May 2006 late ed.:
Article in a scholarly journal
Sheets, Hilarie M. “Getting the Party Started.” ARTNews 106.2 (2007):49-50.
Artwork, or photograph of artwork
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel. The Beloved. 1865-66. Tate Gallery, London.
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo. Elephant and Obelisk. n.d.. Piazza Santa Maria sopra
Minerva, Rome. Gian Lorenzo Bernini: The Sculptor of the Roman Baroque.
3rd ed. By Howard Hibbard, Thomas Martin, and Margot Wittkower. Ithaca:
Cornell University Press. 36. Print.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Fur Elise. Time Warner, 2009. MP3.
Freeman, Peter. Personal interview. 26 August 2010. Personal communication.
Interview (published via print or broadcast)
Animus, Bosley. “Minks and Morals” Interviews with Harlem’s Voice. By Dale
Studebaker. San Bernardino, CA: 2001. Print.
Interview (published online only)
Poundstone, William. Interview by Dan Mancini. Amazon.com Wire’s Blog.
Amazon.com, 2008. Web. 14 August 2010.
Introduction, Preface, Forward, or Afterword
Sante, Luc. Introduction. Novels in Three Lines. By Félix Fénéon. New York: New
York Review Books, 2007. vii-xxxi. Print.
Readings in Art History. Ed. Harold Spencer. Vol. 2. 3rd ed. New York: Charles
Scribner’s Sons, 1983. Print.
Recorded Films or movies
Dasani. Dir. Milton Fry. Perf. Johnny Depp, Brad Pitt, Jane Fonda, David
Arquette. Touchstone, 2010. DVD.
Poem or Short Story
Angelou, Maya. “Phenomenal Woman.” The Complete Collected Poems of Maya
Angelou. New York: Random House, 1994. 130. Print.
Bradbury, Ray. “All Summer in a Day.” A Medicine for Melancholy and Other
Stories. New York: Perennial, 1990. 88-93. Print.
Adapted from the Purdue Online Writing Lab website
"MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)." The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2011. Web. 22 Sept. 2011. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/08/
Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA
MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations. Because Web addresses are not static (i.e., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the Web (e.g., on multiple databases), MLA explains that most readers can find electronic sources via title or author searches in Internet Search Engines.
Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases)
Here are some common features you should try and find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Not every Web page will provide all of the following information. However, collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes:
- Author and/or editor names (if available)
- Article name in quotation marks (if applicable)
- Title of the Website, project, or book in italics. (Remember that some Print publications have Web publications with slightly different names. They may, for example, include the additional information or otherwise modified information, like domain names [e.g. .com or .net].)
- Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers.
- Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.
- Take note of any page numbers (if available).
- Medium of publication.
- Date you accessed the material.
Citing an Entire Web Site
Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number.
Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher),
date of resource creation (if available). Medium of publication. Date of access.
Note: Remember to use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if no publishing date is given.
A Page on a Web Site
For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites. Remember to use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if no publishing date is given.
"How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow.com. eHow, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2009.
An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)
Provide the artist's name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed. Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, the medium of publication, and the date of access.
Goya, Francisco. The Family of Charles IV. 1800. Museo Nacional del Prado,
Madrid. Museo National del Prado. Web. 22 May 2006.
Klee, Paul. Twittering Machine. 1922. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
The Artchive. Web. 22 May 2006.
Note: If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, the medium of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website. If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.
brandychloe. "Great Horned Owl Family." Photograph. Webshots. American
Greetings, 22 May 2006. Web. 5 Nov. 2009.
An Article in a Web Magazine
Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the Web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, medium of publication, and the date of access. Remember to use n.p. if no publisher name is available and n.d. if not publishing date is given.
Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web." A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites. A List Apart Mag., 16 Aug. 2002. Web. 4 May 2009.
Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal
MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals. If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.e. there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, use the abbreviation n. pag. to denote that there is no pagination for the publication.
Dolby, Nadine. “Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions
and Future Directions.” Social Work and Society: The International
Online-Only Journal 6.2 (2008): n. pag. Web. 20 May 2009.
Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print
Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article. Provide the medium of publication that you used (in this case, Web) and the date of access.
Wheelis, Mark. "Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to
the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention." Emerging Infectious
Diseases 6.6 (2000): 595-600. Web. 8 Feb. 2009.
An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service)
Cite articles from online databases (e.g. LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services just as you would print sources. Since these articles usually come from periodicals, be sure to consult the appropriate sections of the Works Cited: Periodicals page, which you can access via its link at the bottom of this page. In addition to this information, provide the title of the database italicized, the medium of publication, and the date of access.
Note: Previous editions of the MLA Style Manual required information about the subscribing institution (name and location). This information is no longer required by MLA.
Junge, Wolfgang, and Nathan Nelson. “Nature's Rotary Electromotors.”
Science 29 Apr. 2005: 642-44. Science Online. Web. 5 Mar. 2009.
Langhamer, Claire. “Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.”
Historical Journal 50.1 (2007): 173-96. ProQuest. Web. 27 May 2009.
E-mail (including E-mail Interviews)
Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom to message was sent, the date the message was sent, and the medium of publication.
Kunka, Andrew. "Re: Modernist Literature." Message to the author. 15 Nov.
Neyhart, David. "Re: Online Tutoring." Message to Joe Barbato. 1 Dec.
A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting
Cite Web postings as you would a standard Web entry. Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the Web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date. Follow with the medium of publication and the date of access. Include screen names as author names when author name is not known. If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets. Remember if the publisher of the site is unknown, use the abbreviation n.p.
Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available). “Posting Title.”
Name of Site. Version number (if available). Name of institution/organization
affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher). Medium of publication. Date of
Salmar1515 [Sal Hernandez]. “Re: Best Strategy: Fenced Pastures vs. Max
Number of Rooms?” BoardGameGeek. BoardGameGeek, 29 Sept. 2008. Web.
5 Apr. 2009.