The APA References page lists the bibliographic information for all of the sources you cite in your paper. These examples follow the instructions outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. This page contains examples of the most commonly used types of sources used in the social sciences.
- The references list should begin on a new page titled "References" (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page. It should be double-spaced just like the rest of your paper.
- Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the first word of each entry.
- Use initials for authors' first and middle names.
- If your reference extends past the first line, every line after should have a hanging indent; the equivalent of one tab space.
- Italicize the main title (of a book, journal, etc).
- Capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title and subtitle (except journal articles).
Pay careful attention to the content and format of each entry below; APA has very specific guidelines regarding punctuation and capitalization.
Article in Journal Paginated by Volume
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal
articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions
in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.
Article in a Magazine
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135,
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A.
Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages chapter). Location:
Article from an Online Periodical
Provide retrieval date only if information is subject to change (as in blogs and wikis).
Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People
Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved May 2, 2006,
Article from a Database
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas.
Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 (3). Retrieved February 20, 2003, from
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved
Blog and Video Blog Entries
Dean, J. (2008, May 7). When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? Message
posted to http://www.spring.org.uk/the1sttransport.
Smith, T. (2004, September 26). Psychology Video Blog #3 [Video File]. Video
posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqM90eQi5-M
Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts
for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Edited Book (no author)
Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing
up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26,
pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental
illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
Review of a Book
Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us by
S. Weller]. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com
Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary (no author)
Feminism. (n.d.) In Encyclopeida Britannica online. Retrieved March 16, 2008,
Interviews, Email and Other Personal Communication
These types of sources are not included in your reference list. Instead, parenthetically cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication in your main text only.
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
Article on a Website (no date)
Taylor, T.K. (n.d.). Shared Experiences: Life in the Barraks. Retrieved August 23,
2008, from http://www.litb.com/shared.htm