Writing and Communication Center

Chicago Style Notes and Bibliography System


Examples of Notes and Bibliographic Entries by Source


Order of names:
in the note, the author’s name is First, Middle Initial, Last; in the bibliography, it is Last, First, Middle Initial.

Indentation: In the note, the first line is indented one space. In the bibliography, a hanging indent is used, where the second and subsequent lines of the entry are indented to the right.
 
Notes are numbered, bibliography entries are alphabetized.   
 

Example:

Text
A Confederate soldier, Chad Green, claimed to have seen Dotsan order the attack, but when asked about his vantage point, he could not describe the terrain.13

Note
     13. Brian J. Foxe, The War: A Short History
(New York: HarperCollins, 1998), 345.

Bibliography Entry
Foxe, Brian J. The War: A Short History
               
 New York: HarperCollins, 1998.

 

First and Subsequent Notes for a Source:

The first time you cite a source, the note should include all the publishing information and the page number.

      1. Peter Mallard, One Fine Day: Weather Patterns in San Diego (New York:
St. Martin's, 2003), 58.

 For subsequent references to a source you have already cited, you may simply give the author's last name, a short form of the title, and the page or pages cited. A short form of the title of a book is italicized; a short form of the title of an article is put in quotation marks.
 

4. Mallard, One Fine Day, 13.

How to use Ibid.

When you have two notes from the same source, that follow each other consecutively, you may use "Ibid." (from the Latin, meaning "in the same place"), and the page number for the second and subsequent notes. Use "Ibid." alone if the page number is the same.

5. Jack Freeman, Gwyn Sharp: A Biography (New York: Knopf, 1993), 23.

6. Ibid., 174.

7.Ibid.

8. Stephen Moreau, How to Cook the Perfect Egg (New York: Routledge, 2010), 321.

9.Freeman, Gwyn Sharp, 175.

10.Moreau, How to Cook, 322.

11.Ibid., 324.

Most Common Formats:
 

Format for Books:

 Note (N):

     1. Firstname Lastname, Title of book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page number.

Corresponding Bibliographical Entry (B):

Lastname, Firstname. Title of book.
             Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication.

 

Format for Journal Articles:

N:
     1. Firstname Lastname, “The Title of the Article,” The Title of the Journal issue, no. (year): pages.

B:
Lastname, Firstname. “The Title of the Article.” The Title of the Journal issue, no.
          (year): pages.

Format for Electronic Articles:

N:
     1. Firstname Lastname, “The Title of the Article,” The Title of the Journal  issue, no. (year): pages, http address (accessed Month day, year).

 

B:
Lastname, Firstname. "The Title of the Article.” The Title of the Journal  issue,
           no. (year): pages. http address (accessed Month day, year).

 

Format for Artworks and Museum Wall Plaques:

Wall Plaques:

Format of information (wall text, object label, brochure), Object Name, Gallery Name, Number or Exhibition Title, Museum Name, City, State.


Example:
Wall text, Playful Performers, National Museum of African Art, Washington, D.C.

Artworks:
N:    
     1. Frank Duveneck, Whistling Boy, oil on canvas, 1872, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati, OH.

B:  (museum)

Duveneck, Frank, Whistling Boy, oil on canvas, 1872, Cincinnati Art Museum,
              Cincinnati, OH.

B: (online)

Duveneck, Frank, 1872. Whistling Boy. Database on-line.
             ARTstor.http://www.artstor.org.Accessed 14 September 2005.           

Format for Web Sources:

N:
     1. Firstname Lastname, “Title of web page,” Publishing organization or name of web site in italics, Publication date if available, URL.


B:
Lastname, Firstname. “Title of web page.” Publishing organization or name of
               web site in italics
. Publication date if available. URL.

 
Although not required by the Chicago style system, some instructors may require access dates. If required, the access date should be included in parenthesis at the end of the citation.

 

Did You Know?

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