From the ESL Student Handbook by Young Min, PhD
You will be required to do a large amount of reading for each class. One of the main differences between high school writing and college writing is that in college you are required to demonstrate your in-depth understanding of the assigned readings through your writing. Reading and writing cannot be separated from each other: the more in-depth reading you do, the more in-depth writing you will eventually do. Thus, it is critical to improve your reading comprehension ability. Here are some strategies you can use.
You should explore the context of the reading before you begin to read the text by asking questions such as “What do I already know about the topic?” “Are there any readings I have done in the past that are related to the topic?” “Have I done any other readings by the same author?” “Why did the instructor assign this reading?”
Then, skim through the reading before you start to read line by line. Skimming means you read something very quickly to find the main ideas in it. Look at the headings, subheadings, guiding questions, visual illustrations, appendices, anecdotes, etc. When you come across unfamiliar words, you should not always look them up in a dictionary. English is a very context-sensitive language. One word has multiple meanings, and the meaning changes depending on the context in which the word is used. Trying to learn the meaning of a new word by guessing from contextual clues is a useful skill to develop. Contextual clues may appear in the same sentence where the word is used or in the preceding or following sentences. Inference skills can ultimately lead to a better retention of words.
If there are certain concepts or terms that you do not completely understand, you may want to visit your instructor during office hours and ask for help understanding the meanings of the concepts. Remember that you can always bring your questions about your readings to the Writing and Communication Center. The tutors can help you understand the cultural context of your readings as well as the content.
Write as you read! As you write in the margins or on sticky notes underlining certain words or sentences, you become more actively engaged in your reading process (writings in the margins are called “annotations”). Because of the advancement of computer technology, we are used to processing information on the computer screen. Although it is still possible for you to annotate the readings on the computer screen, there is a huge difference between reading the material on the computer screen and reading the material on a hard copy holding a pen in your hand. Therefore, you should print out the readings whenever possible instead of reading from the screen.
Annotating while you read can give you multiple benefits. The annotation process can help you recognize the patterns or methods of argument used by the author in the article, which will eventually help you develop your own argumentation style. The more in-depth reading you do, the more in-depth writing you can do. The annotation process can also improve your ability to synthesize and integrate the readings into your writing. Remember that source use and synthesis skills are essential for your college career and beyond. You can also use the notes you’ve made during the reading as the basis for class participation.
As soon as you are finished with the reading, try to jot down the immediate thoughts that come to your mind. Think about the author’s main intention and the author’s main message. If you cannot come up with your own reactions, try to summarize the main ideas of the reading first. Summary writing is always an essential skill to develop for your college education. Then, check the specific requirements of the assignment. Make sure you fully understand how you are supposed to use the readings in your paper (see if you should react to particular passages in the readings or if you should interpret the main ideas of the readings in relation to your own personal experiences).
It is a great idea to form a reading group with students who are taking the same course with you. It will help you not only to improve your understanding of the material but also to get to know your classmates. Many international students have difficulty comprehending lectures. The reading group meetings will be a great opportunity for you to connect the readings with the concept or ideas that you could not completely understand during the lecture. You can also ask for help to better understand certain concepts you are struggling with or simply check pronunciations of certain words. Remember that your group members can be a very important part of your enculturation process in the US. So, try to engage in social and academic activities with them as opportunities arise. This will be helpful not only to expand your knowledge of the English language but also to enhance your awareness of the culture of the US and the US university life as well.
Created by Young-Kyung Min, PhD firstname.lastname@example.org