(This is not a comprehensive list.)

  1. Astin, A.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco:
  2. Jossey-Bass.
  3. Bui, K.V.T. (2002). First-generation college students at a four year university: Background Characteristics, reasons for pursuing higher education, and first-year experiences. College Student Journal.
  4. Choy, S. (2001). Students whose parents did not go to college: Postsecondary access, persistence, and attainment (NCES 2001-126). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
  5. Engle, J., Bermeo, A., & O'Brien, C. (2006). Straight from the Source: What Works for First Generation College Students. Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education.
  6. Hartig, N., & Steigerwald, F. (2007). Understanding Family Roles and Ethics in Working with First-generation college students and their families. Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 15, 2, 159-162.
  7. Housel, T. (2008, October 29). Helping first-generation students straddle 2 cultures. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved May 25, 2014, from
  8. Ishitani, T.T. (2003). A longitudinal approach to assessing attrition behavior among first generation college students: Time-varying effects of pre-college characteristics [Electronic Version]. Research in Higher Education 44:433-449
  9. Inkelas, K. K., Daver, Z. E., Vogt, K. E., & Leonard, J. B. (2007). Living–learning programs and first-generation college students’ academic and social transition to college. Research in Higher education, 48(4), 403-434.
  10. Lohfink, M.M. & Paulsen, M. (2005). Comparing the determinants of persistence for first generation and continuing generation students. Journal of College Student Development, 46(4), 409-428
  11. London, H. (1992). Transformations: Cultural challenges faced by first-generation students. In L.S. Zwerling & H. London (Eds.), First-generation students: Confronting the cultural issues (New Directions for Community Colleges, No.80, pp.5-11). San Francisco: Jossey Bass
  12. McCarron, G. P., & Inkelas, K. K. (2006). The gap between educational aspirations and attainment for first-generation college students and the role of parental involvement. Journal of College Student Development, 47(5), 534-549.
  13. Oldfield, K. (2007). Humble and hopeful: Welcoming first‐generation poor and working‐class students to college. About Campus, 11(6), 2-12.
  14. Orbe, M. P. (2004). Negotiating multiple identities within multiple frames: an analysis of first generation college students. Communication Education, 53(2), 131-149.
  15. Pascarella, E., Pierson, C., Wolniak, G., Terenzini, P. (2004). First-generation college students: additional evidence on college experiences and outcomes. Journal of Higher Education, 75(3), 249-284
  16. Pike, G. & Kuh, G. (2005). First and second generation college students: a comparison of their engagement and intellectual development. Journal of Higher Education, 76(3), 276-300
  17. Ramos‐Sánchez, L., & Nichols, L. (2007). Self‐efficacy of first‐generation and non‐first generation college students: The relationship with academic performance and college adjustment. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 6-18.
  18. Reid, M.J. & Moore III. J. (2008). College readiness and academic preparation for postsecondary education: oral histories of first-generation urban college students. Urban Education 43(2), 240-261.
  19. Rendon, L. I. (1995). Facilitating retention and transfer for first generation students in community colleges. Paper presented at the New Mexico Institute. Rural Community College Initiative (Espanola, NM, March 1, 1995). (ERIC: ED383369)
  20. Richardson, R. & Skinner, E. (1992). Helping first-generation minority students achieve degrees. In L.Zwerling & H. London (Eds.), First-generation students: Confronting the cultural issues (pp. 29-43). New Directions for Community Colleges, No.80. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
  21. Somers, P., Woodhouse, S., & Cofer, J. (2004). Pushing the boulder uphill: The persistence of first-generation college students. Naspa Journal, 41(3), 418-435
  22. Stephens, N. M., Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Johnson, C. S., & Covarrubias, R. (2012). Unseen disadvantage: how American universities' focus on independence undermines the academic performance of first-generation college students. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(6), 1178-1191.
  23. Walton, G. M. & Cohen, G. L. (2011). A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science, 331, 1447-1451.
  24. Terenzini, P.T., Springer, L., Yaeger, P.M., Pascarella, E.T., & Nora, A. (1996). First-generation college students: Characteristics, experiences, and cognitive development. Research in Higher Education, 37(1), 1-22
  25. Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition. (2nd ed). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.