Final Cut Pro 7
Final Cut Pro is video editing software that has become a standard for independent and professional filmmakers alike, for Macintosh. Filmmakers like the ease of use of Final Cut Pro in its ability to handle multiple clips and even content from multiple cameras get to a “rough cut” of a project in a very short amount of time.
Once you have a rough cut, Final Cut Pro is very good about making small adjustments to audio and video effects and transitions, this process is along helped with frequently used functions being mapped to shortcut keys that can greatly increase editing of your project. Our IT support staff at the Digital Media Lab are regularly scheduled to be available to help with student projects, just let them know what you are working on, and how they can help.
Understanding the Workspace
Below is a picture of the Final Cut Pro user interface.
The top left window is the Browser, this box will have all of your un-edited media. Newly imported files will be here, you can also click on the effects tab and browse through an extensive list of effects. To the right is the Viewer window, where you will preview your un-edited footage and will also adjust filter settings by clicking on the “Filters” tab. You can adjust the location and motion on a clip by clicking on the "Motion" tab. In this window you will also be able to add text and templates by clicking on the button in the bottom right. To the right of that is your Canvas window, where you will see your edited video, anytime you play the footage on your timeline it will be shown here. At the base of the screen in the long box is your Timeline. This is where you will edit all of your media together. To the right of the timeline is your toolbox.
Opening a Project
1) From the top menu, select FILE > OPEN.
2) The project file I wanted to use was located on the desktop. Click on the file you want to use, then click CHOOSE.
You can return to a recent project from the top menu, FILE > OPEN RECENT.
Creating a Project
1) Below is a picture where one project is open.
To create a new project, from the top menu, select FILE > NEW PROJECT.
Below you will notice there are now two projects open.
Saving a Project
1) From the top menu, select FILE > SAVE PROJECT.
2) I chose to save my project to the desktop. When you are finished, click SAVE.
3) You will only have to type in the name and location once. From now on, clicking SAVE will save your project in the same location.
After you save you should see the changes reflected in your project name in the top left corner.
Closing a Project
1) Below the top left corner you can see the project tabs at the top, there are two tabs open.
From the top menu, select FILE > CLOSE PROJECT.
2) If you haven’t saved already it will ask you if you want to save your project. Click YES, and follow the instructions for Saving A Project.
Setting Up Scratch Disks
1) From the top menu, select FINAL CUT PRO > SYSTEM SETTINGS.
2) On the top line click on the SET button, then click OK.
3) A new box will pop up. On the left is a list of places you can put your scratch disks - I chose the Documents folder. Selected a location click CHOOSE.
4) Repeat the process for the Waveform Cache, Thumbnail Cache, and the Auto save Vault.
5) When done, click OK.
1) Below is what the timeline will look like if you need to render. There are different render colors but typically it will be a red bar as shown below.
From the top menu, select SEQUENCE > RENDER ALL. This will begin rendering the video and estimate the length of time it will take to render, as shown below.
Importing Video Files
1) From the top menu, select FILE > IMPORT > FILES.
2) The file I wanted to use was located on the desktop. Click on the file you want to use. When you have found and selected your file click, CHOOSE.
Your file will now be located over on the left side. Double-click on a video clip to see that video in the viewer window.
3) You can also import files from your personal hard drive.
Importing Still Photos
1) From the top menu, select FILE > IMPORT > FILES.
2) The file I wanted to use was located on the desktop. Locate the file and click CHOOSE.
The file will now be located on the left side. Double click on an image to see that image in the viewer window.
Working With Composite Modes
1) In the photo below are two clips, preparing to work with composite modes.
2) From the top menu, select MODIFY > COMPOSITE MODE. I chose the composite mode ADD. Below you will see what it looks like before and after, notice it blends the two images together.
1) From the top menu, select FILE > IMPORT > FILES.
2) The file I wanted to use was located on the desktop. When you have found and selected your file click CHOOSE.
Your file will now be located over on the left side. Double-click on an audio track to see the waveforms in the viewer window.
Unlinking Video and Audio
1) To adjust audio apart from video unlink the two tracks from each other. You will know if the tracks are linked because if you click on either the video or audio it will highlight both.
2) To unlink the two tracks click on the “Modify” tab near the top of the screen. A menu will come down. Go down to the word “Link” and click on it.
Adjusting Volume Level
1) Click on the “Toggle Clip Overlays” button.
2) Hold your mouse over the red line on the audio track to see an arrow pointing up and an arrow pointing down with two lines in the middle. Click and hold on the line to bring the audio level up or down. Make sure not to bring the audio to high or you can clip or distort your audio. See an example below.
3) Select the pen tool.
4) A basic introduction to working with key frames will help you work with adjusting audio levels: click on multiple points on the line with the pen tool to choose multiple points, or it will only move the audio line as a whole up and down.
Clicking on the line will create little diamonds that represent the key frames. Hold the mouse over that diamond until a "+" sign appears. Click and hold on the diamond to bring it up or down. Then release the mouse when it’s at the desired decibel level. This will make the track louder or quieter. The higher the line, the louder the volume. The lower the line, the softer the volume. This will create a fade transition between the keyframes. The wider apart the keyframes, the slower the transition will be. The image below shows a dip in volume by using keyframes.
5) To see the audio waveforms on the timeline, hit Command+Option+W at the same time.
Adding Clips to the Timeline
1) To add footage to the timeline, double click on the clip you wish to add. The clips will look like a square movie reel.
2) To add only a portion of a clip, you will set IN and OUT points. This will move only the selection of the clip that you desire. To do this, go into the viewer window. There will be a light grey area with a little yellow "down" arrow. Click on any area in that timeline or the spacebar and it will play that clip for you. Once you have found the part of the clip you want, set the IN and OUT points. To set an IN or OUT point, click “I” and “O” on the keyboard. Go to the beginning part of the selection then click “I” to mark IN. See a blue arrow pointing right with a line at the point. Go to the end of your selection and click “O” to mark OUT. You will see a blue arrow pointing left with a line at the point. This will complete your selection.
3) After the selection has been completed, put the video on the timeline. To do this, click on the yellow button below the Canvas box. This will automatically move the video on to the timeline.
If you get this message, click yes.
Clips can also be added by clicking and holding on the clip in the “Viewer”, then dragging them down on to the timeline. Notice an arrow with a line in front of it, make sure the arrow is pointing down. Note the process is the same in adding pictures and audio - with one exception of dragging audio down; click, hold, and you have to click on the "megaphone with a hand" button.
Resizing And Repositioning Videos
1) Select the video clip. Near the top of the Viewer window, click on the "Motion" tab. First, adjust the scale; Type in a number value or move the up arrow right or left on the line. 100 is the normal clip size. In the picture below I selected 50. Notice the image is only filling 50 percent of the screen.
2) Adjust the video position. In the "Motion" tab there is the word “Center”. To the right of the word “Center” there are two boxes that have numbers in them. Type in the desired number values, and see the text move in the Canvas box. To make your text move in the opposite direction, type in a minus (negative) sign before your number.
3) Adjust the rotation of the text. To the right of the word “Rotation” is a box, type in a value next to the word "rotation" or, click in the circle to the right of the word rotation, and it will begin to rotate your text.
Marking Video Clips
1) Add a marker to a video clip or a timeline to allow notes while editing, and to remember specific places on the timeline. To begin add a marker to your video clip. So click on your video clip so its highlighted like the picture below.
2) Go to the top of the screen and click on “Mark”. A menu will come down, hold your mouse over “Markers”, and another menu will pop out. Click on “Add”.
Now you will see markers on your clip.
3) Edit the marker content. Click on “Mark” again and hold your mouse over “Markers”. Click on “Edit”. Note: Place the vertical line (playhead) on your timeline right on your marker to edit it. Notice the line on the marker in the picture above.
4) A marker box will appear. To the right of “Name”, type in the name of this marker. Click and type in the “Comment” box to add more details about this marker. Note: Your comments will appear smaller than your name when viewed. Below that you will see the words "start" and "duration". “Start” indicates where on the timeline the marker is. “Duration” is the amount your marker extends for an amount of time. At the bottom left is the “Delete” button, if you decide to get rid of your marker. When done with editing, click “OK”.
Below is a picture of an extended marker. This will happen when a marker duration is typed in.
5) Markers can also be set to the timeline. Make sure no single clip is highlighted, and repeat the same steps.
Bring the vertical line in the timeline on to the marker as in the picture above to read back the notes in the Canvas. On an extended marker place the vertical line anywhere on the marker line to read the notes. Note: The marker notes will not show up in the final export, they can only be seen in Final Cut Pro during editing.
1) Click on the text button beneath the Viewer window.
This will bring down a drop menu, hold the mouse over “Text” until another menu pops out. Then click on "Text".
"Sample text" will appear in the viewer. To adjust the text, click on the "Controls" tab near the top of the viewer.
2) Click where is says “SAMPLE TEXT” in the text box to change the text. To change the font, click on the box "Font" to bring up a large list of fonts. Clicking on any font will change the text to that font automatically.
To change the text size, click in the "Size" box and type in any number value or move the slider.
To change the text color, use the eyedropper tool to pick a color from the screen, or click on the box with a (the default is white) color in it to bring up a color palette. Select a color and click “OK”.
3) Click on the "Video" tab to see the changes that have been made. Switch back and forth between the "Video" and "Control" tabs to make and review changes.
Click onto the "Video" tab, then click and hold on the text in the viewer, and drag it on top of your video clip. Make sure to drag the area over the video clip and not the into video clip itself.
4) To adjust the text position, go to the top of the Viewer window and select the "Motion" tab. Note: To increase the size of the text, use the font size tool; using the "Scale" tool will distort the text.
To adjust the rotation of the text, type in a value of degrees in the box, or click in the circle to the right of the word "Rotation" and it will rotate your text. To change the position of the text, there are two boxes that have numbers in them that correspond to distance on the X and Y axis from the origin (0,0). Notice the text move in the Canvas window as you make changes. For the text to move in the opposite direction, type in a minus (negative) sign before the number.
In the Canvas window, notice the placement of the superimposed text. With wireframes turned on, move the text around by clicking on it in the Canvas window, and move it with the mouse.
1) Click on the image button located near the top of the Canvas window. The will bring down a drop menu. Make sure there is a check mark next to “Image + Wireframe”. If there isn’t a check mark, click on it to select "Image + Wireframe".
2) Notice the wireframes. They appear as two white lines that cross each other in the center of the window. Click and hold anywhere in the Canvas to move the text into place. Let go of the mouse when the placement of text is correct.
3) Text can also be moved by going to the top of the Viewer window and clicking on the "Motion" tab. To the right of the word "center" there are two boxes that have numbers in them. Type in the desired number values, notice the text move in the Canvas box. To make the text move in the opposite direction, type in a minus (negative) sign before your number.
Applying Video Filter and Effects
1) Double-click on the clip for which an effect is to be added, to make sure to apply the effects to the correct clip.
2) Click on the "Effects" tab at the top, then go down to video filters. Hold the mouse over it and another menu will pop out. Choose from a list of effect categories. Then click on the effect to select it. I used EFFECTS > VIDEO FILTERS > GLOW > LIGHT RAYS.
The effect will be applied right away. For playback in real time, rendering may be necessary.
3) To adjust the Effects settings, click on the "Filter" tab near the top of the viewer window. Notice the name of the effect and that the arrow to the left of the name is pointing down to view the settings. Each effect will have different settings.
Below is an example of what the adjusted settings will make the image look like.
4) If unhappy with the effect, or your unsure its use, uncheck the box next to the effect name and it will hide that effect.
Working With Key Frames
1) To adjust key frames, click on the "Motion" tab at the top of the viewer window.
2) Add key frames to any function or tool with a key frame symbol next to it, which appears as a circle with a diamond in it. In this tutorial uses key frames with "Scale". Click on the key frame symbol. Notice a key frame on the vertical line to the right has appeared. Also notice the light grey and dark grey areas. The light grey area shows the length of the clip that keyframes are being adding to. The dark grey area is either a different clip, or the end of your timeline.
3) There will be no change or motion with only one key frame. Click over on another area of the clip to set another key frame. I typed in the scale value of 706. Notice another key frame appeared. Notice the green line travels up gradually between the two key frames. If we were to play our footage we will see that it gets larger in that time frame as the scale is being adjusted by using keyframes. To remove all the key frames for this tool, click on the “X”.
4) To delete individual key frames, right-click on the key frame. A menu will appear, click on “Clear” to remove that particular key frame.
1) Transitions are located on the “Effects” tab.
2) Notice a list of folders with right-arrows next to them. In this tutorial we are going to explore the video transitions. Click on the right-arrow next to video transitions. This will open up more sub folders of transitions.
3) I chose the cross dissolve transition. Transitions are placed at the beginning of a clip, at the end of the clip, or where there is a cut between two separate clips. To add a transition, click and hold on the transition, then drag it to your desired location. Notice the transition highlight the area affected by teh transition. Let go of the mouse, and the transition will be placed. If the transition can’t be placed there you will see an “X” next to it.
4) Some transitions are adjustable by double-clicking a transition on the timeline, and it will bring up a menu in the viewer.
Different transitions have different adjustment options.
Adjusting Playback Speed
1) To adjust the speed of a clip, right-click on it with the mouse. Select “Change Speed”.
2) To change the rate of the speed for a clip, click in the box that says "Rate" and type in the desired speed. values above 100% will make the clip go faster, below 100% will make the clip go slower. Click "OK".
To make the clip go backwards, click the "Reverse" checkbox, and click "OK".
Split Screen And Cropping
1) I added two video layers on the timeline. Notice in the picture below there are two video tracks as well as two images in the Canvas window.
Make sure that wireframes are turned on. Please refer back to the “Repositioning Text” tutorial for a walkthrough on using wireframes.
2) Double-click on the image in the timeline. I grabbed the top image and pulled it to the left, as seen below.
3) Double-click on the bottom image, and pull it to the right.
4) Click on the "Motion" tab at the top of the viewer window. In the Motion tab, notice the word “Crop”. Click on the triangle next to it so it’s pointing down. Notice all of the crop settings are now visible.
5) Crop by typing number values into boxes, or, click and hold on the line and the up arrow will move. The higher the value the more will be cropped. See how much an image has been cropped by looking how far the edge is in comparison to the green border around the image. The green border was where the image touched originally.
6) I repeated the same steps on the other image. Notice the black area to le left where there is no image the background.
7) Finally, I moved the bottom image up to make a staggered effect. Use this technique to add multiple images. Adjusting the edge feather button will make the borders of an image looked more smooth and blurred.
1) Select the Blade Tool
2) Choose a place on a clip in the timeline and click on it. Note: If the clips are not linked they will have to clicked on separately. Notice a line between those clips with two red triangles facing each other.
Reselect the move tool to move these clips apart.
3) Click and hold on one of the clips and pull it to the side. There will now be a gap between the clips.
4) There is also a double blade tool that will cut through multiple layers at once. To get to this tool click on the blade tool again, but this time hold on the mouse. Two tool icons will pop out. Choose the one that has to blades layered on each other. With this tool you can cut through multiple tracks at once as seen below.
Voice Over Recording
1) Make sure on your timeline you move the playhead to the beginning of where you want to record. I set mine to the very beginning of the first clip. You can only have voice overs where footage is present; If you have 10 seconds of footage you can only have a 10 second voice over. Add Slug to the timeline extend the time avalable for a voiceover.
2) From the top menu, select TOOLS > VOICE OVER.
3) The voice over box will pop out. Before recording, name the voice over. Click in the box to the right of “Name” and type in the voice over title. Also check to see how loud the voice over will be by looking at the tab as it moves on the level meter. Make sure it does not get over zero to prevent distortion. Press the red record button to begin recording.
4) If the project hasn’t been saved yet, you could receive the message below. Press okay. Note: All of your voice over files will be sent to the “Capture Scratch”.
Wait while the recording prepares to start. This will take a few seconds to be ready, it will say "Recording" and turn red. Begin your voice over.
After recording, the voice over track will automatically be put on the timeline.
5) If you feel that the voice over wasn’t loud enough, turn up the gain by typing in a new, larger amount, or click and hold to pull the slider left or right until the deisired level is attained.
1) Click on the button in the bottom right corner of the viewer.
2) Hold the cursor over “Master Templates”. A menu with a list of templates will pop out. I held my mouse over “Skyline” and another menu popped out. I chose “Skyline-Menu.HD”.
3) Notice the template in your viewer window. Make adjustments to the settings by clicking on the “Control” tab. This will show options for the template.
Click in the “Title” and “Subtitle” boxes to type in texts. You can also change the font size by typing an amount in the square by clicking, holding, and dragging the tab left or right on the “Text Size” line. I didn’t highlight “Text Tracking” because it’s not essential to know. It will either expand or shrink the spaces between letters of text.
4) Click back on the video tab and pull the template onto your timeline.
Exporting a WMV
1) From the top menu select FILE > EXPORT > USING QUICKTIME CONVERSION.
2) An export box will pop up. Click on the blue square to the right of the word “Format”, a list of file types will show up. Click to select “Windows Media”.
3) In the export window there are a few more steps. On the left side is a list of places to export to. I chose the desktop. On the right side is more specific locations including folders you can export to. If you don’t see these options, click on the blue square to the right of “Save As” and make sure the triangle is facing up. In the “Save As” box, type in the name of your export. When you have completed all of these steps, click “Save”. Notice the format square highlighted from the step 2.
4) Next you might get a message about an upgrade. Click on the “Ignore” button.
Exporting to Quicktime
1) From the top menu select FILE > EXPORT > QUICKTIME MOVIE.
2) Notice the export window says "Save". On the left side is a list of locations to save/export to. I chose the desktop. In the middle is a view of what is already on the desktop. If you want to save to a folder this is where you would click on that folder. Note if you don’t see these options make sure the triangle in the blue square is pointing up. To the right of “Save As” type in the desired export name. When done with all these settings, click “Save” to begin the export.
3) The export will begin, and report the estimated completion time.
4) Now, export for use on the web. From the top menu select FILE > SHARE.
5) Change the file type. Click on the box to the right of the quick time file icon. This will bring up a menu. Click on “Other”.
6) Click on the triangle to the right of the “Apple” folder to point down, this will open up more folders.
7) Click on the triangle to the right of the “Other Workflows” folder to point down. This will open up more folders.
8) Click on the triangle to the right of the “Web” folder to point down. This will open up more folders.
9) Click on the triangle to the right of the “Streaming” folder to point down. This will open up more folders.
10) Click on the triangle to the right of the “QuickTime 6 compatible” folder so it’s poining down. This will open up more folders. Click on “MPEG-4 300Kbps Streaming” and be sure it’s highlighted. Then click “Okay”.
11) This will take us back to the settings box. Click on the “File Name” box and type in the title. Make sure not to delete the MPEG-4 extension. Finally, choose the export location by either clicking on the triangles to the right of destination folder, or by clicking on the “Choose” button.
After these steps, click on “Export”.
The export will begin, and report the estimated completion time. Your export could take a long time. You can always reopen Final Cut Pro and repeat these steps to see if it will go faster.
Locations from the “Choose” button: